How do I redirect output in Unix?

Just as the output of a command can be redirected to a file, so can the input of a command be redirected from a file. As the greater-than character > is used for output redirection, the less-than character < is used to redirect the input of a command.

How do I redirect output of a command in Unix?

To use bash redirection, you run a command, specify the > or >> operator, and then provide the path of a file you want the output redirected to. > redirects the output of a command to a file, replacing the existing contents of the file.

How do I redirect standard output?

The regular output is sent to Standard Out (STDOUT) and the error messages are sent to Standard Error (STDERR). When you redirect console output using the > symbol, you are only redirecting STDOUT. In order to redirect STDERR, you have to specify 2> for the redirection symbol.

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How do I redirect all output to a file in Linux?


  1. command > output.txt. The standard output stream will be redirected to the file only, it will not be visible in the terminal. …
  2. command >> output.txt. …
  3. command 2> output.txt. …
  4. command 2>> output.txt. …
  5. command &> output.txt. …
  6. command &>> output.txt. …
  7. command | tee output.txt. …
  8. command | tee -a output.txt.

What is output redirection?

Output redirection is used to put output of one command into a file or into another command.

What is the output of who command?

Explanation: who command output the details of the users who are currently logged in to the system. The output includes username, terminal name (on which they are logged in), date and time of their login etc. 11.

How do I email a shell script output?

Run `mail’ command by ‘-s’ option with email subject and the recipient email address like the following command. It will ask for Cc: address. If you don’t want to use Cc: field then keep it blank and press enter. Type the message body and press Ctrl+D to send the email.

What happens if I first redirect stdout to a file and then redirect stderr to the same file?

When you redirect both standard output and standard error to the same file, you may get some unexpected results. This is due to the fact that STDOUT is a buffered stream while STDERR is always unbuffered.

Which command use the output of a program as the input of another one?

This is known as redirecting output. Redirection is done using either the «>» (greater-than symbol), or using the «|» (pipe) operator which sends the standard output of one command to another command as standard input.

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What command do you use to redirect runtime errors to a file?

2> is input redirection symbol and syntax is:

  1. To redirect stderr (standard error) to a file: command 2> errors.txt.
  2. Let us redirect both stderr and stdout (standard output): command &> output.txt.
  3. Finally, we can redirect stdout to a file named myoutput.txt, and then redirect stderr to stdout using 2>&1 (errors.txt):

18 дек. 2020 г.

What do you use to forward errors to a file in Unix?

To redirect stderr as well, you have a few choices:

  1. Redirect stdout to one file and stderr to another file: command > out 2>error.
  2. Redirect stdout to a file ( >out ), and then redirect stderr to stdout ( 2>&1 ): command >out 2>&1.

How do I write the output of a shell script?

Bash Script

  1. #!/bin/bash.
  2. #Script to write the output into a file.
  3. #Create output file, override if already present.
  4. output=output_file.txt.
  5. echo «<<<List of Files and Folders>>>» | tee -a $output.
  6. #Write data to a file.
  7. ls | tee $output.
  8. echo | tee -a $output.

How do I copy a file in Linux?

Copying Files with the cp Command

On Linux and Unix operating systems, the cp command is used for copying files and directories. If the destination file exists, it will be overwritten. To get a confirmation prompt before overwriting the files, use the -i option.

What is input and output redirection?

Redirection is a feature in Linux such that when executing a command, you can change the standard input/output devices. The basic workflow of any Linux command is that it takes an input and give an output. The standard input (stdin) device is the keyboard. The standard output (stdout) device is the screen.

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What is meant by input and output redirection?

Redirection can be defined as changing the way from where commands read input to where commands sends output. You can redirect input and output of a command. Redirection can be into a file (shell meta characters are angle brackets ‘<‘, ‘>’) or a program ( shell meta characters are pipesymbol ‘|’). …

What is input and output redirection in Linux?

Input and output redirection is a technique used in order to redirect/change standard inputs and outputs, essentially changing where data is read from, or where data is written to. For example, if I execute a command on my Linux shell, the output might be printed directly to my terminal (a cat command for example).