Banks commonly use derivative instruments for managing (positioning or hedging) their exposure to market risk (including interest rate risk and foreign exchange risk), cash flow risk, and other risks in their operations and for trading. The accounting and reporting standards for derivative instruments, including certain derivative instruments embedded in other contracts, and for hedging activities are set forth in ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging (formerly FASB Statement No. 133, “Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities,” as amended), which banks must follow for purposes of these reports. ASC Topic 815 requires all derivatives to be recognized on the balance sheet as either assets or liabilities at their fair value. A summary of the principal provisions of ASC Topic 815 follows. For further information, see ASC Topic 815, which includes the implementation guidance issued by the FASB’s Derivatives Implementation Group.