What is By ?
By is prep 1. near The house is just by the bus stop. Sit down here by me. 2. before, not later than They should have arrived by now. You must be home by eleven o’clock. It must be finished by Friday. 3. showing means or way Send the parcel by airmail. Get in touch with the office by phone. They came by car. She caught a cold by standing in the rain. You make buck’s fizz by adding champagne to orange juice. She paid by cheque, not by credit card. 4. showing the person or thing that did something a painting by Van Gogh ‘Hamlet’ is a play by Shakespeare. A CD recorded by our local group. The postman was bitten by the dog. She was knocked down by a car. 5. by yourself alone Don’t sit at home all by yourself. She made the hat all by herself. Can you find your way to the station by yourself? 6. showing how much We sell tomatoes by the kilo. Eggs are sold by the dozen. Prices have been increased by 5%. They won by 4 goals to 2. 7. showing the size of something The table is 60cm long by 25 wide. (adv) 1. past She drove by without seeing us. 2. by and large in general By and large, the trains run on time. by far very much A bike is by far the cheapest way to travel round London. Of all small cars, this one uses by far the least amount of petrol. Synonym considerably
source: Easier English, Student Dictionary Upper Intermediate Level